Department of Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology is a medical speciality that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases related to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and anus. Gastroenterologists are physicians who specialize in this field and provide both medical and sometimes surgical care for patients with GI issues. It’s important to note that while gastroenterologists primarily provide medical treatment, some conditions may require surgical intervention, and in such cases, a surgeon with expertise in gastrointestinal surgery would be involved.


Here's an overview of the medical and surgical aspects of gastroenterology:

Diagnosis and Management:

Gastroenterologists diagnose and manage a wide range of GI disorders and diseases, including acid reflux (GERD), ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, and liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis.


Gastroenterologists perform endoscopic procedures like upper endoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD) and colonoscopy to visualize the GI tract, take biopsies, and perform interventions like polyp removal.

Medical Treatment:

They prescribe medications, lifestyle modifications, and dietary changes to manage GI conditions, often helping patients avoid surgery when possible.

Cancer Screening:

Gastroenterologists play a crucial role in cancer screening, particularly for colorectal cancer through colonoscopies.

Nutritional Counseling:

They provide advice and management for patients with nutritional issues related to GI disorders.

Surgical Gastroenterology:

Surgical Intervention:

While gastroenterologists primarily focus on medical management, some GI conditions require surgical intervention. Surgical gastroenterologists or GI surgeons are specialized in these procedures.

Examples of GI Surgeries:

GI surgeries may involve removing parts of the intestine (resection), treating diverticulitis, performing surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., colectomy), treating appendicitis, removing tumors, managing pancreatic diseases (e.g., pancreaticoduodenectomy or Whipple procedure), and performing liver and gallbladder surgeries.

Minimally Invasive Surgery:

Many GI surgeries can now be performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, which offer benefits like shorter recovery times and reduced scarring.

Bariatric Surgery:

Bariatric surgery, a subset of surgical gastroenterology, involves procedures like gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy to help patients with severe obesity lose weight.

Liver Transplantation:

Surgical gastroenterologists are involved in liver transplantation, which is a lifesaving procedure for patients with end-stage liver disease.

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